Charging Time is key for high product quality.

But how to achieve charging times of
less than
15 min ?


The fast-charging capability is a decisive purchase require­ment, not only for electric vehicles. Five bound­aries are techni­cally restricting the charging time as shown below. Violating the cell-specific limits leads to accel­er­ated cell aging or even safety risks. The progres­sion of the maximum permis­sible charging current over time, consid­ering all five limits, depends on the electro­chem­ical and thermal initial and boundary conditions in a strongly nonlinear manner. In addition, as the anode surface poten­tial inside the cell is not exper­i­men­tally acces­sible, the suitability of a charging current profile can only be tested indirectly by costly and time-consuming cycling tests. 

The five limits of fast-charging



Limited by power grid. 



Limited by charger current. 



Limited by battery cell (temper­a­ture-induced aging). 



Limited by battery cell (voltage-induced aging). 



Limited by battery cell (lithium-plating aging). 
Moreover, the fast charge capability of the battery is depen­dent on module design, cooling, cell type and there­fore has to be solved on system level. This is why the development of optimal current profiles in the multi­di­men­sional, nonlinear parameter space consisting of time, state of charge, state of health and temper­a­ture is challenging. 


You need a tool to predict all five limits under given operating conditions for individual cells and modules. And that is what the Batemo Cell Model is. Batemos unique battery model­ling technology allows to derive optimal fast-charge profiles for the entire parameter space. This is the basis for an optimized testing design to exper­i­men­tally validate the numer­i­cally calcu­lated fast-charge profiles at carefully selected different opera­tion conditions. This straight­for­ward workflow simul­ta­ne­ously reduces charging time, development time and development cost. 
If you have a physical, param­e­trized and validated model… 
…you can calcu­late an optimal fast-charging strategy based on simulations. 


Batemo Cell Models run within seconds on normal office computers. This enables large parameter varia­tion to consider the nonlinear depen­den­cies on temper­a­ture, SOC and aging state. 


Only if you split up the physical processes in the cell correctly, you can calcu­late the anode surface poten­tial and access all five limits of fast charging simultaneously.



Quanti­ta­tivly reliable simula­tion results need exten­sively validated models. The Batemo Cell Model is the most accurate battery cell model there is – guaran­teed! We always demon­strate the validity through exten­sive measure­ments that prove highest accuracy. 
Our method­ology is to actively control the anode surface poten­tial and thereby avoid lithium plating as shown in the example below. Thereby you reach the physi­cally fastest possible charge profiles under all operating condi­tion. The low compu­ta­tional times allows to automat­i­cally repeat this calcu­la­tion under all initial and boundary conditions to derive ready to imple­ment fast charge maps. 

development method

  • 1st

    Get the Batemo Cell Model to have a physical, parame­ter­ized and validated battery cell model. 

  • 2nd

    Integrate the cell model into your module model. 

  • 3rd

    Do batch simula­tions and derive optimal fast charging profiles and opera­tional strate­gies.

    avoid lithium plating!
  • 4th

    Use the Batemo Cell Model to do a design of valida­tion experiments. 

  • 5th

    Perform the valida­tion exper­i­ments and directly imple­ment it in your BMS!


Use the Batemo Cell Models for simula­tion-based fast-charge development, making it faster and at lower cost while leading to lower charging times. This is how we generate value and contribute to your success. 


Charging Time

Cut down the charging time to the physical minimum by having access to all five limits at the same time. 


Development Time

Speed up your development time by relying on a straight­for­ward workflow instead of cycle tests in trial-and-error principle. 


Development Costs

Safe test efforts by utilizing digital development methods. Test smarter, not harder.

Charging Time

Batemos unique technology enables to reach the physi­cally fastest possible charge profiles by actively control­ling the anode surface poten­tial. Without access to the anode surface poten­tial, the only way is to apply stepped charge profiles while incre­men­tally increasing your charge current and monitoring your cell aging. This trial-and error approach will never yield the real optimum as shown in the picture below. Even an optimal stepped charge profile stays 20% behind the physical optimum for the Tesla Model Y (4680) cell. 

Example: Tesla Model Y (4680)

Development Time and costs

Batemos unique technology enables setting up a straight­for­ward development workflow by predicting the anode surface poten­tial. Without access to the anode surface poten­tial, you must itera­tively try out charge profiles and check their applic­a­bility in cycling tests. This trial-and-error approach is cost- and time consuming. 

Without Batemo Technology

apply charge profile and conduct test 

With Batemo Technology

calcu­late optimized profile 


Let’s check one example: 4 itera­tions of exper­i­mental trial-and-error fast charge development takes about 7 months. When applying 2 profiles simul­ta­ne­ously, you can only test 8 different charging profiles. Even for a small cylin­drical cell this adds up to ≈90k€ personnel and measure­ment expenses. Let’s do this straight­for­ward: with a Batemo Cell Model you can calcu­late optimized charge profiles for all opera­tion and starting conditions within days. Including the Batemo Cell Model gener­a­tion, we have those profiles ready and exper­i­men­tally validated within three months. Adding software costs, personnel and measure­ment expenses for valida­tion you stay below 30k€.


Let’s take the first step!